The Coming of the Holy Spirit (part 2)
 But Peter, standing with the eleven, lifted up his voice and addressed them: “Men of Judea and all who dwell in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and give ear to my words.  For these people are not drunk, as you suppose, since it is only the third hour of the day.  But this is what was uttered through the prophet Joel:  “‘And in the last days it shall be, God declares, that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams;  even on my male servants and female servants in those days I will pour out my Spirit, and they shall prophesy.  And I will show wonders in the heavens above and signs on the earth below, blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke;  the sun shall be turned to darkness and the moon to blood, before the day of the Lord comes, the great and magnificent day.  And it shall come to pass that everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.’  “Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a man attested to you by God with mighty works and wonders and signs that God did through him in your midst, as you yourselves know— this Jesus, delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God, you crucified and killed by the hands of lawless men.  God raised him up, loosing the pangs of death, because it was not possible for him to be held by it.  For David says concerning him, “‘I saw the Lord always before me, for he is at my right hand that I may not be shaken;  therefore my heart was glad, and my tongue rejoiced; my flesh also will dwell in hope.  For you will not abandon my soul to Hades, or let your Holy One see corruption.  You have made known to me the paths of life; you will make me full of gladness with your presence.’  “Brothers, I may say to you with confidence about the patriarch David that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.  Being therefore a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would set one of his descendants on his throne,  he foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption.  This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses.  Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing.  For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he himself says, “‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at my right hand,  until I make your enemies your footstool.”’  Let all the house of Israel therefore know for certain that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” Now when they heard this they were cut to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, “Brothers, what shall we do?”  And Peter said to them, “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.  For the promise is for you and for your children and for all who are far off, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to himself.”  And with many other words he bore witness and continued to exhort them, saying, “Save yourselves from this crooked generation.”  So those who received his word were baptized, and there were added that day about three thousand souls. (ESV)
- Following Peter’s own outline, I will unpack and explain the two main reasons Peter gives for the remarkable and unusual phenomena at Pentecost. Then I will seek to answer the question “What does a right response to the events of Pentecost look like?”
Reason #1: A new era had dawned
- In verse 17, the Apostle Peter quotes Joel 2:28-32.
 “‘And in the last days it shall be, God declares, that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh
- What is the explanation for what happened at Pentecost? What is the reason for the rushing wind, the tongues of fire, the outpouring of the Holy Spirit? A new time period, a new era a new epoch in redemptive history known as “the last days” has begun.
“in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son… ” – Hebrews 1:2
- Biblically, the era in history called the last days spans the entire time frame between the first and second comings of Christ.
- The last days began with the first coming of Christ and will end at the second coming of Christ.
- Peter tells his original audience and us as well–that the outpouring of the Spirit at Pentecost signaled that a new era had dawned. With the coming of Christ, the last days foretold by the prophet had arrived.
- The last days parallel the New Covenant age. The New Covenant age and the last days go together. The New Covenant Age takes place in the last days.
- Under the Old Covenant given through Moses, God poured out His Spirit on a few people – prophets, kings, priests, judges.. others on special occasions.
- Yet even Moses longed for a day when the Spirit would be more broadly poured out.
- He declared prophetically “I wish that all the Lord’s people were prophets and that the Lord would put his Spirit on them! (Numbers 11:29 NIV)”
- Wonderfully, this was fulfilled at Pentecost.
- Pentecost marked the beginning of the last days and the dawn of a new age, the New Covenant age, the age of the Spirit poured out.
- Explanation of the phrase “Baptism in/with the Holy Spirit” and how we understand that phrase.
- Within the context of still speaking of the last days, verse 20 speaks of God’s judgment.
- When unbelievers ridicule Christ, reject Christ and oppose Christ, that invites God‘s judgment in various ways even before the final judgment at the very end.
- May this reality motivate us to faithfully proclaim the gospel to those around us who do not yet know Christ and his gracious forgiveness.
- In the last days while some will experience God‘s judgment, In vs 21, we see the opposite is true as well.. there is great blessing available as well.…
 it shall come to pass that everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.’
- To sum up verses 14-21, Pentecost inaugurated a new era , the New Covenant era, the era of the Spirit-poured out which explains the unusual phenomena the large crowd witnessed at Pentecost. And this era…is characterized by both God’s judgment and God’s blessing.
Reason #2 : King Jesus sent the Spirit
- After citing Joel’s prophecy, the Apostle Peter began to address the crowd regarding the person and work of Jesus.
- He, along with the hundred and twenty disciples were not drunk as some supposed. Something else was going on here. And that something else; rather, that someone else, was Jesus.
- He is the one who poured out the Spirit on the disciples at Pentecost.
- The rushing wind, the tongues of fire – it was the Holy Spirit sent by none other than Jesus Himself.
- So in verse 22 Peter puts the spotlight fully and completely on Jesus Christ.
- He reminds his hearers of Jesus of Nazareth, and how they had witnessed Him perform all kinds of signs and wonders.
- Then in verse 23, Peter lovingly and boldly rebukes them saying
 this Jesus, delivered up according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God, you crucified and killed by the hands of lawless men.
- Notice Peters boldness to proclaim truth even though it could’ve gotten him in a whole lot of trouble.
- May God help us to boldly and compassionately proclaim the good news of salvation, even if it proves costly.
- Notice also, how in the same sentence, simultaneously, the Apostle Peter affirms both God’s sovereignty and man’s responsibility in the crucifixion of Jesus.
- While we cannot fully comprehend how God‘s sovereignty and man’s responsibility go together, we do well to remember, scripture upholds them both AND God is God and we are not.
- So Jesus died, but that’s not the whole story.
Verse  God raised him up, loosing the pangs of death, because it was not possible for him to be held by it.
- Peter then goes on to quote from Psalm 16 where King David prophesied the resurrection of Our Lord.
Verse  For you will not abandon my soul to Hades [the realm of death], or let your Holy One see corruption.
- In verse 29, Peter says to the crowd essentially, that when David spoke these word, he couldn’t have been speaking about himself because they all knew that David was dead, that he was buried, and in fact his tomb was still with them.
- In Psalm 16, David actually was speaking of Christ! Christ was the one verse 31 God had not abandoned to Hades and whose flesh did not see corruption. Christ vs 32 was the one who had risen from the dead.
- This brings us full circle in verse 33 to the main point that Peter was trying to make to his hearers —
 Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he [that is Jesus Christ !] has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing.
- You see what Peter was saying? The rushing wind, the tongues of fire. It wasn’t drunkenness Rather, it was the resurrected ascended Jesus Who from his throne poured out the Holy Spirit!
 For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he himself says,
“‘The Lord said to my Lord,
“Sit at my right hand,
 until I make your enemies your footstool.”’
- Here Peter quotes from Psalm 110 :1. The Lord, who is God the Father, said to David’s Lord — who was the Messiah King yet to come, Jesus‘sit at my right hand, the place of ultimate authority and power in the universe, until such a time as I make all of your enemies a footstool.’
- Psalm 110:1 is the most often referred to OT verse in the NT. It gives reason for joyful optimism regarding the gospel’s success in the world.
- Thoughts on Paul’s use of Ps.16 in 1 Cor. 15:25.
- The big picture here in Acts 2, is the last days, is an era in redemptive history marked by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit and the Father progressively subduing the enemies of Christ our King.
- What happened next illustrated the very point that Peter was making.
3. How Should We Respond?
- How should we respond to the truth that the crucified, risen Christ is King of all who gives the good gift of the Holy Spirit?
- After citing Psalm 110:1, Peter exclaimed vs.36
 Let all the house of Israel therefore know for certain that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” (ESV)
- In response we read in verse 37 that the people came under conviction, they were cut to the heart.
- They then asked Peter what should they do. And Peter exhorted them to repent and receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
- So How should we respond to the truth that the crucified, risen Christ is King of All who gives the good gift of the Holy Spirit? Peter’s answer? Repent so that we too can receive the Holy Spirit.
- Invitation to those who don’t know Christ, to repent, to put their faith in Christ and receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
- Rejoice at the miracle of Grace that your life is.
- Rejoice that the Holy Spirit has regenerated your heart, causing you to be born again from above.
- Rejoice that you live in the era of the Spirit poured out and that you have the Holy Spirit of God living inside of you.
- Rejoice that Christ your king it’s reigning over all things ensuring that the Great Commission will be accomplished; it will be fulfilled.
Questions for Discussion/Application
- Re-read the text, Acts 2:14-41. What initial observations and insights do you have from reading this text?
- Moses declared “I wish that all the Lord’s people were prophets and that the Lord would put his Spirit on them! (Numbers 11:29 NIV).” What did Moses long to see that he didn’t see at the time?
- Please re-read verses 14-21. How did Pentecost fulfill Joel’s prophecy?
- In what was is the work of the Holy Spirit different in the New Covenant age different from the work of the Spirit in the Old Covenant age?
- Read Psalm 16:10. How does Jesus fulfill Psalm 16:10?
- Read Psalm 110:1. How does Jesus fulfill Psalm 110:1?
- How does the truth that Jesus right now is at the right hand of the throne of God, ruling over all things encourage and strengthen you?
- How does Psalm 110:1 encourage us with respect to the advance of the gospel?
- Consider taking time to pray that we would all be people of faith, trusting God that He is on his throne ruling over all things at all times for His glory and the good of His people. Pray also that we would truly be a Spirit-filled people—that is, that we would walk daily by the Spirit, according to the dictates of the Spirit, in obedience to God and love for others.